A Comparative Study of Three Different Yoga Modules On Intelligence Quotient In Normal School Children
A Dissertation submitted by Audrey Gomes
Under the guidance of Dr. H.R. Nagendra Ph.D, Dr. R. Nagarathna, M.D. F.R.C.P.
Towards the partial fulfillment of The Masters Degree in Yogic Sciences (M.Sc.)
Vivekananda Yoga Mahavidyapeetham
Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana
(Deemed University, Recognized by UGC, Govt. of India through HRD)
19, Eknath Bhavan, Gavipuram Circle, K.G. Nagar,
Bangalore - 560 019, India
Abstract :This study was undertaken to assess the individual effect of three selected modules of integrated yoga practices on the IQ level of school children and to compare the effect of three different yoga modules. 153 school children, aged 13-15 years (Mean age SD, 13.86 0.84) were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups: Intelligence Quotient (IQ) N=51; Creativity N=52 and Physical Stamina N=50. The groups were matched for sex, age, socio-economic status and socio-environmental background. Each group was assigned a different integrated set of yoga practices including breathing exercises, pranayama (breath control), stithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar (sun salutation), Yoga asanas (physical postures) and meditation. Each set of practices was designed to study its effect on 3 different variables. i.e. Intelligence Quotient (IQ), Creativity (CR) and Physical Stamina (PS).
The IQ level of each group was measured using the 'Draw-a-man- test' (standardized for Indian children) before (on the 1st day) and after (9th day) of yoga training. In the group that was assigned the IQ set of yoga practices, there was a significant change in the IQ level at 6.52%, (P<.001). There was no significant change in the Creativity group at 2.08%, (P=.067) nor in the Physical stamina group at 0.56%, (P=.650). Results from a gender analysis showed that there was no significant difference between boys and girls in any group. (P=.598)
These results suggest that a selected module of integrated yoga practices is effective in improving the IQ level of school children.
Summary & Conclusion : This stratified random controlled study on effect of integrated module of yoga on IQ of school children (aged 13-15) who were allocated to three groups showed that there was highly significant improvement in Group A (IYM for intelligence) with no significant change in IQ in Group B (IYM for creativity ) and Group C (IYM for Physical Stamina).
In a 16 month study of changes in intelligence, conducted in adults who practiced TM (Transcendental Meditation), regular meditators (N=36) increased significantly more in intelligence (p<.05) than the irregular meditators. (10) In the present study we have observed the effect of an integrated module which included asanas, pranayama, meditation and other yoga techniques in an intensive 10 day programme.
This special module for intelligence was designed based on scientific research and knowledge from traditional yoga texts. We have shown in our earlier studies (11) that Right nostril Pranayama breathing (Surya Anuloma Viloma - SAV) produces increased energy expenditure and sympathetic activation as compared to LNB or alternate nostril breathing. There are other studies (12) that have demonstrated lateralization effects i.e. forced left-nostril breathing was associated with right brain related processes and vice-versa (13). The Swara Yoga text (14) also refers to the stimulating effect (heat producing - sun) effect of right nostril breathing. In the present study, the IYM practiced by children of Group A included Right nostril pranayama breathing (SAV) (27 rounds, 4 times a day) which may have contributed in enhancing analytical intelligence which is a left brain function. All other components of IYM which were carefully selected could have contributed towards better performance in this group.
This specific yoga module can be incorporated into the regular curriculum in schools for better academic performance as well as reduced stress levels.