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Food Groups & Their Nutrient ...

Effect of processing on nutritive value of foods

All the foods we eat, with exception of fruit and vegetable salads, are subjected to some sort of cooking or processing. When we talk of nutritional value, we should consider the actual nutrients that reach our table.

The common cooking methods are:

Steaming, pressure cooking, boiling, roasting, frying, baking, grilling, etc.

Some ways wherein nutrients are lost in cooking are:
  • If vegetables are cooked in water containing salt & the cooking water discarded . This results in loss of minerals like sodium, potassium and calcium.
  • Cutting vegetables into small pieces and exposing them to air may result in loss of Vitamin C.
  • Water soluble vitamins are lost during excessive washing as in repeated washing of legumes, rice, etc. Washing may remove as much as 40 % thiamine & nicotinic acid.
  • Cooking for long periods results in vitamin loss. If fat is repeatedly used in frying, it may contain toxins due to peroxidation and rancidity.
  • Excessive heating of milk with lactose & other foods with Jaggery may affect protein quality as it may lead to browning.

Cereals

This category includes primarily - rice, wheat, corn and millets.

Rich In

Deficient In

Carbohydrates esp.

Lysine ( amino acid )

Dietary fiber

Vitamin A

Protein, Calcium (some of them)

Vitamin C

Iron ( some of them )

Fat ( only~2- 5per 100 g)

B-Complex Vitamins esp. whole grains

Pulse ( Legumes )

This includes the legumes like green gram, whole gram, bengal gram, black gram, lentil, field bean, cow pea, rajma etc.

Rich In

Deficient In

Proteins

Vitamin A

Vitamin B-Complex

Vitamin C

Rich in amino acid lysine

Amino Acid Methionine

Total fat ( visible + invisible )

Tryptophan(esp. red gram)

Nuts & Oilseeds

Rich In

Deficient In

Protein

Methionine (sesame seeds are an exception )

Fat (oil)

Carbohydrates

Vitamin B-Complex

(groundnuts are esp. rich in Vitamin B -1 & nicotinic acid )

Lysine

Fats & Oils

Rich In

Deficient In

Vitamin A ( red palm oil has a high content of beta-carotene )

Carbohydrates

Fat

Proteins

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Fruits

Rich In

Deficient In

Vitamin C

Proteins

Vitamin A ( like yellow fruits as mango & papaya )

Fat

Carbohydrates ( like fruits like banana) Iron ( esp. dry fruits ) Pectin's

Vitamin D

Vegetables - Green Leafy Vegetables

This includes amaranth , fenugreek , drumstick , mint , etc.

Rich In

Calcium

Iron

Beta-carotene

Vitamin C

Riboflavin

Folic Acid

Roots & Tubers

This includes tapioca , potato , sweet potato , carrots , yam , colocacia , etc.

Rich In

Carbohydrate esp. starch

Carotene ( esp. carrots & yellow varieties of yam )

Calcium ( esp. tapioca & yams )

Other Vegetables - This includes vegetables like eggplant, lady finger , french beans , guar beans , various gourds , tomatoes , etc.

Rich In

Vitamin C ( esp. tomatoes )

Dietary fiber

Animal Foods

Milk , Milk Products & Eggs This group includes liquid milk , milk powder , curd , butter milk etc.

Rich In

Deficient In

Good quality protein

Vitamin C

Calcium

Iron

Riboflavin

Lactose

Flesh Foods

Rich In

Protein

Vitamin B-Complex

Vitamin A (esp. liver)

Calcium (esp. fish)

W-3 (polyunsaturated)

Fatty acids (esp. fish)

Spices & Condiments

Rich In

Flavoring agents

Beta-carotene (like green chillies)

Vitamin C (like green chillies)

Tannin (esp. turmeric)

Pharmacologically active substances like choline, biogenic amines, etc.

 

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