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Advanced Yoga Study ( By Swami Dharmananda
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hands act as shields to protect the body from harm, and govern the body by providing for its care and welfare. The head with is mental faculties provides the intelligence and the spiritual and moral counsel necessary to maintain a kingdom of trillions of cells and countless sensations, perceptions and activities. Man intuitively imitated the archetype of the bodily government when organizing his society. The sages of India were first to pattern their civilization after the bodily government. That is why they emphasized the recognition of four natural castes, according to man's natural qualifications and actions. The rishis maintained that the four castes are necessary in the proper government of a country. The intellectual and spiritual Brahmins, the Kshatriyas soldiers and rulers. The Vaishya business man the Shudra laborer should cooperate in a successful government as the brain , skin, hands and feet do in the body. In India the four castes were originally based on the innate qualities and the outward actions of the people. Later the caste rules became rigidly based on heredity alone, which is a flaw that has to be removed. 

Caste system is India's sociology, the science of creating and maintaining a society at its optimum best. Every society has four very distinct needs. Teachers; leaders, administrators, protectors; producers and laborers. What should be the qualities of a teacher? Can a person be a teacher just because he desires it or just because that is a means of livelihood for him or just because he happens to have the necessary education qualification for it? No, says the Indian tradition. A teacher apart from the above has to be a role model for the students. He has to have character qualities of honesty, integrity, simplicity, in life and the mind should be free of business motives. 

Similarly, what should be the qualities to be social leader? Can a person be a leader just because he desires to be? Or just because a section of the society connected to him desires it or just because he is influential, has money power or muscle power? Leaders again like the teachers have to have very specific character qualities. So the question arises who are the best persons to be the teachers and the leaders and how to select them? This is how it was done in ancient India. 

India's spiritual tradition discovered that all human beings are evolving from a low animal level of existence to the highest Divine level of existence. Jesus and Buddha are the examples of Divine beings. Each human being today or tomorrow will attain this state. This is a slow nature ordained evolutionary growth that takes many hundreds of lives. The growth gets accelerated as human beings become aware of their goal and consciously works in that direction. This evolutionary growth passes through four very distinct phases. 

Shudra (Manual Laborers) 
At the lowest level, a human being is very similar to an animal. His basic motive in life is to somehow satisfy the physical urges of food, sleep, shelter, survival and procreation. His consciousness and intelligence has not evolved much and he perceives no higher aim in life. Life for him is a struggle for existence, he doesn't question it and accepts whatever comes his way as fate or destiny. He doesn't have the initiative to change things for the better. These types of people are the shudras. Shudras generally function from the mooladhara chakra. These shudras in Indian society were given the social role of providing labor. It can be agricultural labor, industrial labor or any form of physical labor. These people are generally peaceful, satisfied with their lot and lead life routinely but have no higher aspirations. Their 


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