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(Received on April 10, 1993)


We are thankful to Dr. Gore for his reaction to our paper (1). We give our point-by- point response to his comments.

1. The techniques of Navasan, Navakasan and Mukhabhastrika are give on pages 80, 76 and A-77 respectively of  "Yoga: Step-by-step" by Gitananda Swami (2). Yogeswar describes Navasan as Naukasanasupine and Navakasan as Naukasana-prone (3). Navakasan is described as Naukasan in Yogasan Vijnan by Dhirendre Brahmachari (4). We have followed the method and terminology given by Gitananda Swami(2). In brief, Navasan is assumed from the supine position by raising the upper part of the body and the legs on an incoming breath so that the toes are in line with the nose. The resultant boat-like posture is maintained for the required duration. Navakasan is the opposite posture of Navasan and is assumed from the prone position. Mukhabhastrika, a bellows type breathing is done by taking in a full breath and blasting out the air in short, repetitive 'whooshes' while the lips are pursed(in 'kaakimudraa').

2. The different yoga techniques followed each other without any rest period between them. An interval of a few seconds between the postures does not make any significant difference.

3. We agree that it would have been ideal to have a control group. However, while one can have any number of experimental animals like rats, it is difficult to get healthy, cooperating volunteers for control study. The period of yoga training was only 3 months and the subjects formed their own control. Hence a separate control group was not incorporated. The magnitude of changes observed in our study is so large that these cannot be attributed to factors other than the experimental intervention which was yoga in the present study. We do not expect changes in reaction time, respiratory pressure and breath holding time with increase in age (3 months in our study).

Madan Mohan
Department of Physiology,
JIPMER, Pondicherry - 605 006.


  1. Madanmohan, Thombre DP, Balakumar B, Nambinarayanan TK, Thakur S, Krishnamurthy N, Chandrabose A: Effect of yoga training on reaction time, respiratory endurance and muscle strength. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1992; 36:229 - 233.

  2. Gitananda Swami: Yoga: step-by-step. Pondicherry: Satya Press, 1981: 4 - 229.

  3. Yogeswar: Textbook of Yoga, Madras: Yoga Centre, 1982: 91 - 433.

  4. Dhirendra Brahmachari. Yogasan Vijnan(Hindi), New Delhi: Dhirendra Yoga Prakashan, 1996: 117.

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