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The group mean values ± SD for all the parameters have been given in Table 1.

Two Factor ANOVA
The two factor ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the “before” and “after” values of skin resistance-SR (viz Factor B = before test period versus after test period), [F = 8.54, F 0.02 (2) 1,44 = 7.24 hence P < 0.021, here (as well as below) the “F” value for DF 44 has been

Table 1. Autonomic Variables Before and After Surya anuloma pranayama (SAV) and Normal breathing (NB) values are groupes Mean ± SD, Number of subjects = 12.

*p < 0.05, paired t-test, “after” compared to “before”
**p< 0.01, paired t-test, “after” compared to “before” @ p< 0.05, Tukey test,

derived by linear interpolation (Zar, 1984) from the values for DF = 40 and DF = 45, given in a standard table. The multiple comparison Tukey test revealed a significant difference between the mean SR value after SAV compared to the mean value before SAV (q = 3.91, where q .05 (2) 4, 40 = 3.79, hence P < 0.05). Here 40 is the next value listed on the standard table where 44 is not listed.

For the systolic BP, interaction between Factor A (SAV versus NB) and Factor B (before versus after), i.e., A X B was significant [ F = 4.54, F 0.05 (1) 1, 44 = 4.06, hence P < 0.0,5 ]. However, there was no significant effect of either Factors A or B independently (P > 0.2, in both cases, DF as described above). There was no significant effect of either of the Factors (A or B) or of the interaction between them (A X B) for the remaining parameters (P > 0.2 in all cases, DF as described above). The multiple comparison Tukey test did not reveal a significant difference in the comparison of the group mean values for these parameters (for all parameters q < 2.50, DF as described above for SR, hence P > 0.1).

Paired t test
The paired t test revealed a significant decrease (45.7%) in digit pulse volume (DPV) following SAV (P < 0.05), with no significant change after NB. There was a significant (P < 0.05) increase of 17% in the oxygen consumption (OC) after SAV and in the systolic blood pressure after SAV sessions by an average of 9.4 mm HG (P < 0.05), but not after NB sessions. The skin resistance (SR) was significantly reduced after both SAV and NB sessions (P < 0.001, in both cases). The change was greater after SAV sessions (60%), compared to a 31% decrease after NB sessions. However, this difference was not statistically significant [ q = 1.72, where q 0.5 (2) 4, 40 = 1.996, hence P > 0.5 ].

There were no significant changes in the other parameters after either SAV or NB sessions, compared to before (P > 0. 1) in all cases)


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