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Advanced Yoga Study ( By Swami Dharmananda
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Vishnu Granthi 
This is the second knot and is located at the anahata chakra. This knot produces karuna, compassion, attachment to universal good and a strong desire to help the suffering humanity. This desire although good creates a golden chain and ties the aspirant to the lower worlds. 

Rudra Granthi 
This is the third knot and is located at the agnya chakra. This obstacle is created by the attachment to the siddhis and .the miraculous powers that manifests. Renouncing these powers the yogi ascends to the highest goal. 

Description and characteristics of chakras 

In the physical body, we have important nerve junctions called plexuses like the solar plexus, cardiac plexus, etc. Similarly in the astral body we have astral nerve (nadis) junctions called chakras. The charkas are spinning vortexes of prana energy, spinning like wheels of light each radiating its own color. The faster these wheels spin the more energy they can receive and transmit. The combined effect of all these wheels of light makes up the aura- the subtle radiation of light from the chakras. These chakras are store houses and transmitters of the prana energy. They are distribution centers in the astral body. They are also seats of consciousness. The astral spine is called sushumna. Inside the sushumna we have six major chakras. A description of these chakras are given below: 

Mooladhara chakra (Fig-91) 

The word means, ‘root support of life'. It refers to the instinctive animal urges that is responsible for all human life. These urges are that of food, shelter, sleep, survival and procreation. 

Location In the center of the perineum between the anus and the sex organ. Kundalini which gives power and energy to all the chakras lie at this chakra. It lies just below the kanda and the junction where Ida, Pingala and Sushumna meet. 

The energy here is responsible for all the instinctive animal urges in man like eating, sleeping, mating, shelter and survival. Survival and security is the basic urge. Basic emotion of this chakra is fear. Basic clue to a condition of imbalance is a feeling of insecurity. When the energy in this center is weak (Tamasic) or over active (Rajasic) then these instinctive functions become irregular and imbalanced. When the energy is pure (Sattwic) the functions are healthy and balanced. The apana vayu functions in excretory activities. The source of apana vayu is mooladhara chakra. The large intestine (caecum, colon, rectum), the anal region, anal sphincters, the kidneys, the ureters, the urinary bladder the urethra the expiratory organs of 


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